Sarah Clifford Illustration

Illustrated medicine and biology notes by Sarah Clifford

The official website of Sarah Clifford Illustration - illustrated video tutorials by postgraduate medical student and biology tutor Sarah Clifford.

The Full Hand-Drawn Notes Collection

SCI HDNC THUMB.jpg
Cardiovascular System Overview THUMB.jpg
Cardiac Cycle THUMB.jpg
Basic ECG Interpretation THUMB.jpg
Basic ECG Interpretation-2 THUMB.jpg
Blood Pressure Page Thumb 1.jpg
Blood Pressure THUMB 2.jpg
Blood Pressure THUMB 3.jpg
Pharmacology of Shock THUMB.jpg
The Clotting Cascade THUMB.jpg
Haemoglobinopathies THUMB 1.jpg
Haemoglobinopathies THUMB 2.jpg
The Nervous System Overview-1.jpg
The Nervous System Overview-2.jpg
Spinal Tracts-1.jpg
Epilepsy Types.jpg
Epilepsy Pharmacology.jpg
Brachial Plexus.jpg
Cranial Nerves I to V.jpg
Cranial Nerve Exam.jpg
Broca's and Wernicke's Aphasia.jpg
Digestion & Absorbtion Physiology THUMB 1.jpg
Digestion & Absorbtion Physiology THUMB 2.jpg
Anatomy of the Hepatopancreatobiliary System (HPB) THUMB.jpg
Hormone types, mechanisms of action, and regulation THUMB 1.jpg
Hormone types, mechanisms of action, and regulation THUMB 2.jpg
Hormone types, mechanisms of action, and regulation THUMB 3.jpg
The Hypothalamic-Pituitary Axis THUMB.jpg
Hypothalamus & Pituitary Gland Blood Flow THUMB.jpg
Signs & Symptoms of Diabetes THUMB.jpg
Risk Factors and Symptoms of Type II Diabetes THUMB 1.jpg
Risk Factors and Symptoms of Type II Diabetes THUMB 2.jpg
Diabetic Autonomic Neuropathy THUMB 1.jpg
Diabetic Autonomic Neuropathy THUMB 2.jpg
Kidney Anatomy - Macroscopic & Microscopic.jpg
Renal Tubular Function.jpg
Renal Disease Overview.jpg
Actue Kidney Injury.jpg
CKD - Signs & Symptoms.jpg
Respiratory Anatomy Key Points-1.jpg
Respiratory Anatomy Key Points-2.jpg
Respiratory Anatomy Key Points-3.jpg
Muscle Anatomy THUMB.jpg
ACL Injury THUMB.jpg
Male Urogenital System-1.jpg
Male Urogenital System-2.jpg
Down's Syndrome.jpg
Eye Anatomy.jpg
Anatomy of the Nose and Throat THUMB.jpg
HIV transmission routes THUMB.jpg
T Helper Cells Responses THUMB.jpg
Basic Embryology Overview THUMB.jpg
SCI HDNC THUMB.jpg
Cardiovascular System Overview THUMB.jpg
Cardiac Cycle THUMB.jpg
Basic ECG Interpretation THUMB.jpg
Basic ECG Interpretation-2 THUMB.jpg
Blood Pressure Page Thumb 1.jpg
Blood Pressure THUMB 2.jpg
Blood Pressure THUMB 3.jpg
Pharmacology of Shock THUMB.jpg
The Clotting Cascade THUMB.jpg
Haemoglobinopathies THUMB 1.jpg
Haemoglobinopathies THUMB 2.jpg
The Nervous System Overview-1.jpg
The Nervous System Overview-2.jpg
Spinal Tracts-1.jpg
Epilepsy Types.jpg
Epilepsy Pharmacology.jpg
Brachial Plexus.jpg
Cranial Nerves I to V.jpg
Cranial Nerve Exam.jpg
Broca's and Wernicke's Aphasia.jpg
Digestion & Absorbtion Physiology THUMB 1.jpg
Digestion & Absorbtion Physiology THUMB 2.jpg
Anatomy of the Hepatopancreatobiliary System (HPB) THUMB.jpg
Hormone types, mechanisms of action, and regulation THUMB 1.jpg
Hormone types, mechanisms of action, and regulation THUMB 2.jpg
Hormone types, mechanisms of action, and regulation THUMB 3.jpg
The Hypothalamic-Pituitary Axis THUMB.jpg
Hypothalamus & Pituitary Gland Blood Flow THUMB.jpg
Signs & Symptoms of Diabetes THUMB.jpg
Risk Factors and Symptoms of Type II Diabetes THUMB 1.jpg
Risk Factors and Symptoms of Type II Diabetes THUMB 2.jpg
Diabetic Autonomic Neuropathy THUMB 1.jpg
Diabetic Autonomic Neuropathy THUMB 2.jpg
Kidney Anatomy - Macroscopic & Microscopic.jpg
Renal Tubular Function.jpg
Renal Disease Overview.jpg
Actue Kidney Injury.jpg
CKD - Signs & Symptoms.jpg
Respiratory Anatomy Key Points-1.jpg
Respiratory Anatomy Key Points-2.jpg
Respiratory Anatomy Key Points-3.jpg
Muscle Anatomy THUMB.jpg
ACL Injury THUMB.jpg
Male Urogenital System-1.jpg
Male Urogenital System-2.jpg
Down's Syndrome.jpg
Eye Anatomy.jpg
Anatomy of the Nose and Throat THUMB.jpg
HIV transmission routes THUMB.jpg
T Helper Cells Responses THUMB.jpg
Basic Embryology Overview THUMB.jpg
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The Full Hand-Drawn Notes Collection

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THIS IS A DIGITAL DOWNLOAD PRODUCT

Save 35% and get ALL 51 pages by buying the Full Hand-Drawn Notes Collection! Check out the thumbnails and contents table below to see exactly what is included! 

N.B. This is a digital download product rather than a physical book. All images are high resolution, making this a large file. Once you have completed your order, you will receive a download link via email, which I recommend you download via a wifi-connected desktop computer/laptop. Download could take up to 10 minutes.

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CARDIOVASCULAR

1. Cardiovascular System Overview (1 Page)

This page gives a graphic representation of the anatomy of the heart chambers, the main vessels in the cardiovascular system and their relation to the lungs and tissues of the body.

2. The Cardiac Cycle (1 Page)

This page illustrates the conductive system of the heart and describes the events that occur in sequence during the cardiac cycle. It also describes the concepts of pre-load and after-load in reference to heart failure.

3. Basic ECG Interpretation (2 Pages)

This 2-page document gives an explanation of the how the different lead positions relate to the ECG trace, and how the different features of the ECG trace relate to the electrophysiology of the heart. It also shows which key features to look out for in myocardial infarctions.

4. Blood Pressure & The Effect of Exercise (3 Pages)

This 3-page document gives a basic explanation of what blood pressure is, and goes on to explain how exercise can effect this, giving examples from recent research papers.

5. Pharmacology of Shock (1Page)

This page gives an overview of the different types of shock, and the pathophysiology of cardiogenic shock. It also gives a graphic representation of the mechanism of action of inotropic drugs and beta-agonists in the management of cardiogenic shock.

6. The Clotting Cascade (1 Page)

This page gives a graphic representation of the clotting cascade, and shows the mechanism of action of anti-coagulant drugs including heparin and warfarin.

7. Haemoglobinopathies (2 Pages)

This 2-page document gives an overview of genetic disorders of haemoglobin, including the thalassaemias and sickle cell anaemia.

NEUROLOGY

1. Nervous System Overview (2 Pages)

This page gives an overview of the breakdown of the nervous system into the central and peripheral nervous systems, and the somatic, autonomic and enteric components. 

2. Spinal Tracts (1 Page)

This page gives a graphic representation of the different spinal tracts, including the spinothalamic tract, dorsal columns and corticospinal tract. 

3. Epilepsy Types (1 Page)

This page gives a breakdown of the broad different types of epilepsy and how they are differentiated according to presentation. 

4. Epilepsy Pharmacology (1 Page)

This page gives a graphic representation of the mechanism of action of different types of anti-epileptic drugs, by showing how they interact with receptors at the synaptic membrane. 

5. Brachial Plexus (1 Page)

This page shows a diagram of the brachial plexus, with its roots, trunks and cords highlighted. It shows how the major nerves originate from here, and extend down the arm.

6. Cranial Nerves I-VII (1 Page)

This page shows the origin of each of the cranial nerves (I-VII) from the inferior aspect of the brain and brain stem. It details their anatomical relations to other structures, and shows their functions.

7. Cranial Nerve Exam (1 Page)

This page provides and illustrated flow diagram of the steps involved in the cranial nerve exam, for all nerves (1-12).

8. Broca’s & Wernicke's Aphasia (1 Page)

This page gives graphic representations of how damage to different areas of the cerebral cortex causes different deficits in function, with particular focus on disruption of language when there is damage to Broca's and Wernicke's area.

GASTROENTEROLOGY

1. Digestion & Absorption Physiology (2 Pages)

This 2-page document gives a graphic explanation of the of the processes of digestion, absorption and excretion occurring in the digestive tract, focusing particularly on fats, proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins and iron.

2. Anatomy of the Hepatopancreatobiliary (HPB) System (1 Page)

This page provides a illustrated representation of relationship between the liver, gall bladder, pancreas and duodenum, with a schematic of the biliary tree, and the blood supply to these structures.

ENDOCRINOLOGY

1. Hormone Types, Mechanisms of Action & Regulation (3 Pages)

This 3-page document gives an overview of the different types of hormones (endocrine, paracrine, autocrine and juxtacrine), and also describes hormones by class (either lipid-soluble or water-soluble). It goes on to describe the cellular and molecular mechanism of action off each of these classes in detail. The last page gives details of hormone interactions and regulation.

2. Hypothalamic-Pituitary Axis (1 Page)

This page gives a graphic overview of the relationship between the hormones of the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland, and the effect they have on the body.

3. Hypothalamus & Pituitary Gland Blood Flow (1 Page)

This page shows the anatomical relationship between the hypothalamus and pituitary gland, and gives a detailed view of the blood flow to, from and between these structures. This anatomical information supports an understanding of the movement of hormones that can be seen in the Hypothalamic-Pituitary Axis illustrated notes page in this section.

4. Signs & Symptoms of Diabetes (1 Page)

This page gives a graphic representation of the typical presenting signs and symptoms of diabetes, and how these are related to the underlying metabolic disorder.

5. Type II Diabetes Risk Factors, Symptoms & Complications (2 Pages)

This three-part illustration uses a cartoon character to show the different risk factors for type II diabetes, the symptoms of diabetes and late complications of the disease.

6. Diabetic Autonomic Neuropathy (2 Pages)

This 2-page document explains the mechanisms by which autonomic neuropathy of diabetes results in the typical symptoms experienced by the patients. It gives details of how cellular and molecular factors contribute to the condition.

RENAL

1. Kidney Anatomy - Macroscopic & Microscopic (1 Page)

This page shows the structure of the kidney, then zooms in to show the structure of the nephron, then zooms in further to show the microscopic structure of the glomerulus, relating this to its function.

2. Renal Tubular Function (1 Page)

This page describes the different events that occur at each stage of the nephron, with particular reference to reabsorption and secretion in relation to hormonal control and diuretic action.

3. Renal Disease Clinical Syndromes (1 Page)

This page describes the different ways in which renal disease can present, with reference to 7 different "clinical syndromes".

4. Acute Kidney Injury (1 Page)

This page gives a description and definition of acute kidney injury, shows the risk factors as a spider diagram, and lists the causes by dividing them into the groups: pre-renal, renal and post-renal.

5. Chronic Kidney Disease Signs & Symptoms (1 Page)

This page gives a definition and classification system for chronic kidney disease, and description of the signs and symptoms, explaining their causal mechanism in each case.

RESPIRATORY

Respiratory Anatomy Key Points (3 Pages)

This 3-page document shows a graphic representation of the anatomy of the respiratory system, with reference to key clinical features.

MUSCULOSKELETAL

1. Muscle Anatomy (1 Page)

This page gives a basic overview of the different types of muscle: smooth, cardiac and skeletal. It shows more detailed anatomy of skeletal muscle, and provides a framework table for analyzing muscle involvement in different movements. It also lists the muscle groups and the major joints of the body.

2. Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Injury (1 Page)

This diagram shows the relation of anatomical structures in the knee to the cruciate ligaments, and demonstrates how a twisting motion can lead to the common injury of an ACL rupture.

UROLOGY

1. Anatomy & Physiology of the Male Urogenital System (2 Pages)

This 2-page document gives an overview of the clinically-oriented anatomy of the penis and testes and their relation to the other organs of the male urogenital system. It also describes the development of sperm in the testes.

PAEDIATRICS

1. Down’s Syndrome - Impact on Development (1 Page)

This page describes some of the ways in which a primary disability may impact of further development, including learning, speech and hearing difficulties, motor development delay, heart defects and other physical conditions. 

OPHTHALMOLOGY

1. Anatomy of the Eye (1 Page)

This half-page shows the anatomy of the eye, the lacrimal system, and the muscles that control eye movement. 

EAR, NOSE & THROAT

1. Anatomy of the Nose & Throat (1 Page)

This page gives diagrams of the interior and exterior of the nose as well as a cross section of the nose and throat showing the anatomy from the nasopharynx to the trachea and other associated structures. 

INFECTION

1. HIV Routes of Transmission (1 Page)

This page gives an illustrated representation of the different possible routes of transmission of HIV (sexual intercourse, contaminated blood and organ donation, mother-to-child and contaminated needles).

IMMUNOLOGY

1. The T-Helper Cell Response (1 Page)

This page gives an illustrated representation of the different types of T-helper cell (Th1, Th2 and Th17) and details which specific cytokines determine which type of T-helper cell a naive CD4 cell will become. It also indicate the type of immune response that each type of T-helper cell is involved in.

EMBRYOLOGY

1. Basic Embryology (1 Page)

This page gives an graphic and simplified overview of the events that occur during development of the embryo, from fertilization through to organogenesis. There is a small section to add your own notes.